Our study found that 여성 알바 full-time working mothers are more likely to have better family-friendly benefits, more flexible schedules, and higher earnings than their part-time working peers who are also mothers. In addition, full-time working mothers are more likely to have a higher level of education than part-time working mothers. The following themes will be brought up for discussion: the implications of motherhood on working hours, as well as the types of family-friendly perks that are accessible to working mothers.
There is some evidence to show that people who work part-time jobs often get low pay and are not offered many perks by their employers.
40 We discovered that between the ages of 25 and 54, mothers had a greater chance of working part-time employment when compared to women who did not have children. This was the case regardless of whether or not they had children. The second model depicts the effects of PTW in relation to the number of children that are currently living in the household as well as the ages of those children. Women over the age of 18 who are actively seeking employment and who have children living with them who are under the age of five or who have two children living with them of any age are qualified for the employment assistance that is made available by PTW. The 19 PTW designs found in Mediterranean countries show a substantial amount of variation.
It is likely that differences in the types of jobs that full-time versus part-time working women held had a substantial influence on the employment opportunities and flexibility that were available to them. This is because full-time working women were more likely to be in charge of the household finances. Males who worked part-time had the same issues as females who did the same thing: they were often underemployed and locked in employment that was unable to provide them the same degree of growth, income, or perks as full-time job.
The great majority of women who are the principal breadwinners in their families are forced to choose occupations with low income since this is the only option available to them. Although men face many of the same challenges as women, such as fewer work options, lower pay, and fewer benefits, they are more likely to accept part-time jobs due to a lack of full-time employment alternatives. This is in contrast to the situation for women, who are more likely to accept full-time employment. In comparison, women tend to have a more difficult time finding employment prospects. Employees, particularly women, may realize that the duties of caregiving or other commitments prohibit them from working full-time since their employers hire so seldom, particularly in low-wage service sectors. This is especially true in businesses where wages are low. When it comes to responsibilities pertaining to money, this is very likely to be the situation.
On the other hand, just one third of all women who are employed full-time are employed in these industries, which implies that these job paths are not an enticing choice as an option for a career path. The vast majority of responders, 57%, hold down full-time jobs over the course of the year, and 63% of them are in the prime of their working lives (ages 25-54) This suggests that the majority of respondents consider employment to be highly important in their lives. These women have jobs that require them to work at least half time, and nobody else in their families is able or willing to take care of their children. Consequently, they are forced to work (an adult who is not working or works less than half-time).
Women have historically been responsible for a disproportionately large amount of the caring responsibilities inside the home, which may assist to explain why women earn less money than males. Even though there are more black women in positions of economic leadership, they are not always granted the necessary degree of respect, despite the fact that they are more visible in these professions. This is despite the fact that there are more black women in positions of economic leadership. 27 In addition to this, they are the primary providers of financial support for their family, which assures that they will continue to exist.
Because they are more likely to work in low-paying occupations with limited perks and no child care subsidies, women of color typically have a more difficult time overcoming these hurdles. This is due to the fact that there are less child care subsidies available. In addition to this, they have to deal with the impacts of prejudice based on their race, ethnicity, and gender, which makes it much more challenging for them to advance in their careers. Women who are pregnant often face discrimination in the workplace due to their pregnancy, a lack of reasonable accommodations at their place of employment that would enable them to continue working, a lack of employment protections while they are on leave, and a lack of replacement pay after they return to work. These are the most common problems that pregnant women face in the workforce.
Because the United States is the only industrialized country that does not have a national policy requiring paid parental or maternity leave, it deprives many expecting women and their families of the financial security that they need at a time when they are at their most vulnerable. The majority of businesses want their female workers to promptly return to their prior jobs after taking leave for medical reasons; otherwise, they risk losing their jobs. If a pregnant woman has health problems throughout her pregnancy that prohibit her from being able to work, she may be entitled for employment protection as well as either a partial or unpaid leave of absence, depending on the specifics of the situation.
The most effective strategy for preserving a woman’s professional reputation during her pregnancy is to negotiate an accommodation that will allow her to continue working, provided that doing so is not only feasible but also essential from a medical perspective. If you want to ensure that a woman will continue to have financial stability, career advancement opportunities, and other benefits at her place of employment, the single most essential thing you can do for her is to facilitate the conditions under which she may keep working.
Because it is beneficial to maintain a consistent income and to have some time off after giving birth, many pregnant women decide to continue working for as long as they are able to while they are carrying their child, even in settings where these advantages are not guaranteed. This is because it is advantageous to keep one’s income steady and to have some time off after giving birth. Those who work part-time may discover that it is more difficult to adequately manage their personal and professional duties. This is likely due to the fact that their schedules shift more often. Workers need to be guaranteed at least some minimum number of hours per week, and they need to be allowed some say over their schedules, including a reduction in the amount of wiggle room that there is in that schedule. In addition, workers need to be guaranteed at least some minimum number of hours per week. Employees need to be guaranteed at least some minimum number of hours per week, workers need to be treated equitably, the process of transitioning from part-time to full-time employment has to be streamlined, and workers need to be guaranteed at least some minimum number of hours per week.
Due to the fact that working arrangements may consist of very few hours or may not have regular hours that can be predicted, employers are not required to guarantee that their employees are given a particular number of hours of work. This is because working arrangements may consist of very few hours. It’s possible that this is due to the fact that individuals who have part-time jobs often have jobs with flexible schedules, which allows them more freedom to pursue other things in their personal lives. If this is the case, then this might be the cause of this phenomenon. 52 Although it’s likely that mothers don’t have much of a say in the matter, it’s still feasible for them to work part-time or whenever their schedule allows it if they want to. 53 Comparatively, fewer than ten percent of full-time workers were provided with less than a week’s notice for their schedule, in contrast to the twenty-one point seven percent of part-time workers who were given the same treatment.
Women are still relegated to the role of secondary earners in many homes. This is mostly due to the fact that working part-time is often associated with a lower wage and fewer professional alternatives. One of the reasons is because of this.
Women who take part in the work force should get appropriate compensation and should have easier access to job opportunities. Policies that promote or support regular scheduling, guaranteed hours, and extended before- and after-school programs have the potential to reduce economic inequities and increase the number of employment opportunities available to women. Similarly, policies that promote or support guaranteed hours have the potential to increase the number of employment opportunities available to men. These are some of the potential outcomes that might arise from implementing these policies. Instead, we should aim for the stars by constructing an economy that pays women fairly for the work they do, broadens their access to the workforce by enacting laws that are more accommodating to families, and affirms their right to choose whatever combination of motherhood and paid work they believe is appropriate for them. This would be a much better use of our time and resources than settling for mediocrity.
Vanberg adds that if schools and daycares aren’t entirely reopened, it might have a negative impact on women’s professions. This is the case despite the fact that women already do a disproportionate amount of housekeeping and child care responsibilities.
The annual regional survey to determine the number of women between the ages of 15 and 64 who are employed in dependent professions will serve as our primary independent variable. This assessment is presented in the form of a proportion of women who are employed part-time.
8 This indicator of part-time work, which is referred to as PTW, takes into consideration geographical and seasonal differences in the patterns of part-time employment.